The average size of a household was probably between five and six persons.
In most rural areas household heads were grouped in patrilineal lineages or clans—that is, a group of men descended only through males from a common ancestor, usually a great-grandfather but perhaps an even earlier ancestor.
Western-style theatres, orchestras, and opera companies are thriving, while the popular arts also flourish.
With the exception of a secularist elite, many Turkish people remain committed to a Muslim identity and to an Islamic worldview.
Changes in kinship, family, and marriage have resulted from economic and demographic changes.
During the 20th century, Western forms of art, music, and literature assumed a place in Turkish national culture alongside traditional indigenous cultural expressions.
While many writers, artists, and musicians have abandoned traditional Islamic modes in favour of Western ones, Turkish culture has adopted a strongly nationalistic slant evidenced by the use of the vernacular in literature, the depiction of village scenes in the visual arts, and the popularity of folk ballads and other traditional forms in music.
Young men can now more easily establish economic independence.
Universal formal education and the possibilities of upward social mobility or migration for work have given young people a view of the world that is different from that of their ancestors, but significant changes in customary behaviour are slow in developing.People look to their kin for day-to-day sociability, for hospitality in other villages, for help in trouble, for cooperation in weddings and funerals, and for aid in urban migration, in finding jobs, and in getting official favours.Kinship and marriage ties have had important political and economic implications, both at higher levels of power in the towns and in links between towns and villages.Land disputes are now often settled by official and legal means rather than by local social pressures.Legal divorce has tended to replace socially recognized separation.Turkish contemporary literature was the focus of wide international regard when Orhan Pamuk, an acclaimed Turkish novelist, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2006.