However, this policy faltered after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the last new nuclear power plant was commissioned in 1989.Whereas the Social Democratic Party (SPD) had affirmed nuclear power in 1979, in August 1986 it passed a resolution to abandon nuclear power within ten years.
These comprised four operating VVER-440s, a fifth one under construction and a small older VVER reactor. ON’s “power generation in and outside Europe and global energy trading,” but “E.In 2000 the European Commission approved the merger of two of Germany's biggest utilities, Veba and Viag, to form E. ON has equity in the following nuclear plants which from January 2016 are managed by its subsidiary Preussen Elektra: Gundremmingen B&C 25%, Grohnde 83.3%, Brokdorf 80%, Isar 2 75%, Emsland 12.5%. ON will retain responsibility for the remaining operation and dismantling of its nuclear generating capacity in Germany and not transfer it to Uniper” as originally envisaged.Generating capacity at the end of 2016 was 197 GWe, comprising 9.5 GWe nuclear, 3.9 GWe hydro (plus 9.3 GWe pumped storage), 45 GWe onshore wind, 4.1 GWe offshore wind, 41 GWe solar, 20.0 GWe lignite, 22.7 GWe hard coal, 7.4 GWe biomass and 24.2 GWe natural gas (Fraunhofer Institute data).In 2015 wind and solar PV had capacity factors of 20% and 11% respectively, compared with 97% for nuclear (IEA figures).An industry leader reminded his government that "Reliable and cost-effective energy supply must remain an important component of German economic policy".
Some speculation centred on the future of the agreement and the revised Atomic Energy Act which followed it under any new government.
Long drawn-out "consensus talks" with the electric utilities were intended to establish a timetable for phase out, with the Greens threatening unilateral curtailment of licences without compensation if agreement was not reached.
All operating nuclear plants then had unlimited licences with strong legal guarantees.
The companies' undertaking to limit the operational lives of the reactors to an average of 32 years meant that two of the least economic ones – Stade and Obrigheim – were shut down in 20 respectively, and the one non-operational reactor (Mülheim-Kärlich, 1219 MWe) commenced decommissioning in 2003.
Brunsbüttel was shut down in 2007, as was Krümmel, apart from a few weeks operation in 2009.
In particular, the agreement put a cap of 2623 billion k Wh on lifetime production by all 19 operating reactors, equivalent to an average lifetime of 32 years (less than the 35 years sought by industry).